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Table 1 Cardiorenal syndrome classification

From: Renocardiac syndromes: physiopathology and treatment stratagems

Type 1 (acute cardio-renal syndrome) Abrupt deterioration of cardiac function that results in acute kidney injury (AKI)
Type 2 (chronic cardio-renal syndrome) Chronic abnormalities of cardiac function leading to progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Type 3 (acute reno-cardiac syndrome) Abrupt and primary worsening of kidney function that initiates acute cardiac dysfunction
Type 4 (chronic reno-cardiac syndrome) CKD that promotes reduction of cardiac function
Type 5 (secondary CRS) Systemic disorders that impair both cardiac and renal function