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Table 4 Essential elements of a randomized controlled trial comparing fistulas to catheters in opinion of respondents, by geographic location

From: Willingness to participate in a randomized trial comparing catheters to fistulas for vascular access in incident hemodialysis patients: an international survey of nephrologists

  Canada Europe Australia/NZ p value
n (%) n (%) n (%)
  N = 168 N = 29 N = 51  
Protocol should be vetted by a national funding agency 110 (65.5) 11 (37.9) 23 (45.1) <0.01
Data safety and monitoring board must provide oversight 139 (82.7) 12 (41.4) 40 (78.4) <0.01
All hemodialysis patients should be studied 50 (29.8) 10 (34.5) 13 (25.5) 0.69
Only certain high-risk patient populations, where the benefit of fistulas is not clear based on observational studies, should be studied 101 (60.1) 14 (48.3) 30 (58.8) 0.49
Only patients who have failed a previous fistula attempt should be studied 12 (7.1) 5 (17.2) 7 (13.7) 0.13
Follow-up must be a minimum of 3 years 105 (62.5) 20 (69) 27 (52.9) 0.31
The study should only be conducted at centers with a primary failure rate of less than 50 % after fistula creation 63 (37.5) 8 (27.6) 15 (29.4) 0.40