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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of atypical antipsychotic users and non-users

From: Atypical antipsychotic medications and hyponatremia in older adults: a population-based cohort study

Characteristic Unmatched Matched
  Antipsychotic users Antipsychotic non-users Standardized differencea Antipsychotic users Antipsychotic non-users Standardized differencea
  (n = 92,090) (n = 175,836)   (n = 58,008) (n = 58,008)  
Demographic       
 Age, mean (SD), years 81 (7.8) 79 (7.9) 29.2 % 81 (7.7) 81 (7.7) 0.3 %
 Women 58,647 (63.7 %) 111,968 (63.7 %) 0 % 38,736 (66.8 %) 38,736 (66.8 %) 0 %
Income quintileb       
 1 (low) 20,160 (21.9 %) 37,436 (21.3 %) 1.5 % 12,331 (21.3 %) 13,081 (22.6 %) 3.1 %
 2 18,854 (20.5 %) 36,395 (20.7 %) 0.6 % 11,888 (20.5 %) 12,057 (20.8 %) 0.7 %
 3 (medium) 17,999 (19.6 %) 33,861 (19.3 %) 0.7 % 11,630 (20.1 %) 11,408 (19.7 %) 1.0 %
 4 17,607 (19.1 %) 33,206 (18.9 %) 0.6 % 11,213 (19.3 %) 10,847 (18.7 %) 1.6 %
 5 (high) 17,058 (18.5 %) 34,373 (19.6 %) 2.6 % 10,946 (18.9 %) 10,615 (18.3 %) 1.5 %
Rural residence 11,759 (12.8 %) 23,484 (13.4 %) 1.7 % 7671 (13.2 %) 7557 (13.0 %) 0.6 %
Long-term care 32,644 (35.5 %) 26,705 (15.2 %) 47.9 % 16,409 (28.3 %) 16,409 (28.3 %) 0 %
Comorbid conditionsc       
 Charlson comorbidity index, mean (SD) 1.68 (1.8) 1.56 (1.8) 6.7 % 0.87 (1.5) 0.94 (1.5) 4.7 %
 Johns Hopkins ACG System Aggregated Diagnosis Groups, mean (SD) 13.90 (4.2) 13.69 (4.0) 5.2 % 13.37 (4.2) 13.69 (4.1) 7.8 %
 Dementia 71,933 (78.1 %) 92,049 (52.4 %) 56.2 % 44,715 (77.1 %) 44,715 (77.1 %) 0 %
 Schizophrenia 14,838 (16.1 %) 14,072 (8.0 %) 25.1 % 4756 (8.2 %) 4756 (8.2 %) 0 %
 Bipolar disorder 10,174 (11.1 %) 11,377 (6.5 %) 16.3 % 3295 (5.7 %) 3295 (5.7 %) 0 %
 Unipolar depression/anxiety 28,419 (30.9 %) 74,574 (42.4 %) 24.2 % 15,038 (25.9 %) 15,038 (25.9 %) 0 %
 Parkinson’s disease 8652 (9.4 %) 19,015 (10.8 %) 4.7 % 3780 (6.5 %) 3780 (6.5 %) 0 %
 Congestive heart failure 19,029 (20.7 %) 33,627 (19.1 %) 3.9 % 10,038 (17.3 %) 10,038 (17.3 %) 0 %
 Chronic kidney disease 8127 (8.8 %) 15,323 (8.7 %) 0.4 % 3140 (5.4 %) 3140 (5.4 %) 0 %
 Hypertension 65,205 (70.8 %) 131,562 (74.8 %) 9.0 % 40,929 (70.6 %) 40,419 (69.7 %) 1.9 %
 Chronic liver disease 2980 (3.2 %) 6388 (3.6 %) 2.2 % 1664 (2.9 %) 1807 (3.1 %) 1.5 %
 Hypothyroidism 10,213 (11.1 %) 20,354 (11.6 %) 1.5 % 6222 (10.7 %) 6198 (10.7 %) 0.1 %
 Cancer 12,145 (13.2 %) 25,758 (14.7 %) 4.2 % 7321 (12.6 %) 7864 (13.6 %) 2.8 %
 Diabetes mellitus 14,245 (15.5 %) 30,491 (17.3 %) 5.1 % 17,590 (30.3 %) 18,457 (31.8 %) 3.2 %
 Pneumonia 8006 (8.7 %) 12,843 (7.3 %) 5.1 % 4237 (7.3 %) 4755 (8.2 %) 3.3 %
 Coronary artery diseased 31,417 (34.1 %) 61,334 (34.9 %) 1.6 % 18,641 (32.1 %) 19,184 (33.1 %) 2.0 %
 Angina 20,496 (22.3 %) 42,264 (24.0 %) 4.2 % 12,166 (21.0 %) 12,462 (21.5 %) 1.3 %
 Previous hyponatremia 3403 (3.7 %) 5416 (3.1 %) 3.4 % 1766 (3.0 %) 2111 (3.6 %) 3.3 %
 Lung disease 26,237 (28.5 %) 53,842 (30.6 %) 4.7 % 15,489 (26.7 %) 16,891 (29.1 %) 5.4 %
 Seizure 1782 (1.9 %) 2780 (1.6 %) 2.7 % 879 (1.5 %) 1087 (1.9 %) 2.8 %
 Acute kidney injury 3453 (3.8 %) 5616 (3.2 %) 3.0 % 1482 (2.6 %) 1501 (2.6 %) 0.2 %
 Acute urinary retention 3337 (3.6 %) 5179 (3.0 %) 3.8 % 1650 (2.8 %) 1774 (3.1 %) 1.3 %
 Delirium 7112 (7.7 %) 6013 (3.4 %) 18.8 % 3424 (5.9 %) 2546 (4.4 %) 6.9 %
 Peripheral vascular disease 1939 (2.1 %) 4061 (2.3 %) 1.4 % 1043 (1.8 %) 1238 (2.1 %) 2.4 %
Concurrent medication usee       
 Number of unique drug products, mean (SD) 9.71 (6.4) 8.94 (5.5) 13.0 % 8.91 (5.9) 9.41 (5.6) 8.7 %
 Anticonvulsants 10,970 (11.9 %) 16,409 (9.3 %) 8.4 % 5552 (9.6 %) 6688 (11.5 %) 6.4 %
 Antidepressants 46,600 (50.6 %) 65,227 (37.1 %) 27.5 % 25,197 (43.4 %) 26,871 (46.3 %) 5.8 %
 Antidiabetics 14,245 (15.5 %) 21,969 (12.5 %) 8.6 % 8526 (14.7 %) 9307 (16.0 %) 3.7 %
 Antineoplastics 3240 (3.5 %) 6863 (3.9 %) 2.0 % 1958 (3.4 %) 2151 (3.7 %) 1.8 %
 Thyroxine 16,580 (18.0 %) 33,499 (19.1 %) 2.7 % 10,406 (17.9 %) 10,846 (18.7 %) 2.0 %
 Potassium sparing diuretics 5390 (5.9 %) 11,025 (6.3 %) 1.8 % 3267 (5.6 %) 3236 (5.6 %) 0.2 %
 Non-potassium sparing diuretics 31,051 (33.7 %) 61,131 (34.8 %) 2.2 % 18,611 (32.1 %) 18,665 (32.2 %) 0.2 %
 ACE inhibitors and/or ARBs 39,596 (43.0 %) 88,563 (50.4 %) 14.8 % 24,853 (42.8 %) 25,660 (44.2 %) 2.8 %
 NSAIDs (excl. ASA) 13,638 (14.8 %) 30,146 (17.1 %) 6.4 % 8667 (14.9 %) 9047 (15.6 %) 1.8 %
 Calcium channel blockers 22,902 (24.9 %) 49,786 (28.3 %) 7.8 % 14,642 (25.2 %) 15,011 (25.9 %) 1.5 %
 Beta-adrenergic agonists 26,099 (28.3 %) 55,259 (31.4 %) 6.7 % 16,169 (27.9 %) 16,254 (28.0 %) 0.3 %
 Statins 29,558 (32.1 %) 72,878 (41.5 %) 19.5 % 19,171 (33.1 %) 19,514 (33.6 %) 1.3 %
 Benzodiazepines 33,031 (35.9 %) 45,988 (26.2 %) 21.1 % 17,616 (30.4 %) 18,692 (32.2 %) 4.0 %
Healthcare contacts, mean (SD)f       
 Hospitalizations 0.51 (0.9) 0.32 (0.8) 22.6 % 0.40 (0.8) 0.39 (0.8) 1.3 %
 Emergency department visits 1.29 (2.1) 0.84 (1.6) 24.7 % 1.04 (1.6) 1.00 (1.7) 2.5 %
 Family physician visits 18.57 (18.0) 13.61 (13.1) 31.9 % 15.84 (15.5) 16.30 (15.3) 3.0 %
 Geriatrician visits 0.82 (3.6) 0.34 (2.1) 16.9 % 0.58 (2.5) 0.49 (2.4) 3.7 %
 Psychiatrist visits 1.69 (7.5) 0.36 (2.5) 26.6 % 0.64 (2.4) 0.40 (2.2) 10.0 %
Health-care useg       
 Previous sodium tests 63,335 (68.8 %) 79,930 (45.5 %) 48.5 % 38,190 (64.8 %) 38,145 (65.8 %) 0.2 %
 Carotid ultrasound 4568 (5.0 %) 9137 (5.2 %) 1.1 % 2721 (4.7 %) 2883 (5.0 %) 1.3 %
 Cardiac catheterization 742 (0.8 %) 2334 (1.3 %) 5.1 % 414 (0.7 %) 477 (0.8 %) 1.2 %
 Echocardiography 12,411 (13.5 %) 27,264 (15.5 %) 5.8 % 7247 (12.5 %) 7355 (12.7 %) 0.6 %
 Holter monitoring 4818 (5.2 %) 10,904 (6.2 %) 4.2 % 2962 (5.1 %) 3032 (5.2 %) 0.6 %
 Colorectal cancer screening 10,653 (11.6 %) 29,013 (16.5 %) 14.2 % 6767 (11.7 %) 6823 (11.8 %) 0.3 %
 Cervical cancer screening 2047 (2.2 %) 8290 (4.7 %) 13.7 % 1447 (2.5 %) 1427 (2.5 %) 0.2 %
 Thyroid stimulating hormone 57,414 (62.4 %) 100,900 (57.4 %) 10.1 % 34,911 (60.2 %) 34,766 (59.9 %) 0.5 %
 Bone mineral density test 5792 (6.3 %) 18,558 (10.6 %) 15.4 % 4040 (7.0 %) 4110 (7.1 %) 0.5 %
 Hearing test 3705 (4.0 %) 9327 (5.3 %) 6.1 % 2375 (4.1 %) 2537 (4.4 %) 1.4 %
 Cytoscopy 3959 (4.3 %) 7739 (4.4 %) 0.5 % 2253 (3.9 %) 2325 (4.0 %) 0.6 %
 Computed tomography of the head 26,927 (29.2 %) 25,724 (14.6 %) 35.9 % 13,261 (22.9 %) 12,896 (22.2 %) 1.5 %
 Chest X-ray 43,501 (47.2 %) 69,077 (39.3 %) 16.1 % 24,600 (42.4 %) 25,086 (43.3 %) 1.7 %
 Pulmonary function test 4882 (5.3 %) 13,764 (7.8 %) 10.2 % 2901 (5.0 %) 3404 (5.9 %) 3.8 %
Laboratory measurementsh       
 Evidence of baseline serum sodium measurement, N (%) 14,346 (15.6 %) 21,948 (23.8 %) 20.9 % 7242 (12.5 %) 7242 (12.5 %) 0 %
 Most recent serum sodium, mean (SD) 140.3 (3.5) 140.4 (3.2) 2.7 % 140.4 (3.4) 140.3 (3.4) 4.4 %
  1. Data are presented as the number (percentage) of patients, unless otherwise reported
  2. ACE inhibitor angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ACG adjusted clinical groups, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, IQR interquartile range, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, SD standard deviation
  3. aStandardized differences are less sensitive to sample size than traditional hypothesis tests. They provide a measure of the difference between groups with respect to the pooled standard deviation; a standardized difference greater than 10 % was considered as a meaningful difference between the groups
  4. bIncome was categorized into fifths of average neighborhood income on the index date
  5. cComorbid conditions in the 5 years preceding the index date were considered
  6. dCoronary artery disease includes receipt of coronary artery bypass graft surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention
  7. eConcurrent medication use in the 6 months preceding the index date were considered
  8. fHealth-care contacts in the year preceding the index date were considered
  9. gHealth-care use in the year preceding the index date was considered
  10. hSerum sodium measurements were obtained at a mean (SD) of 140 (102) days in users and 149 (101) days in non-users, prior to the index date