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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Fluid volume expansion and depletion in hemodialysis patients lack association with clinical parameters

Characteristics All patients (n = 194) Hypovolemic (n = 17) Normovolemic (n = 83) Hypervolemic (n = 94) P value
VS, L (assessed by BCM) 1.1 ± 2 −2.1 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.7a 2.6 ± 1.5b,c <0.001*
VS/ECFV% (assessed by BCM) 7.8 ± 12 −12 ± 3.4 0.9 ± 4a 17 ± 10b,c <0.001*
Clinical target weight 72 ± 22 85 ± 28 74 ± 21 69 ± 20c 0.014*
VS, L (clinically assessed) 2.2 ± 2.0 2.1 ± 1.3 1.7 ± 1.5 2.5 ± 2.3b 0.016*
VS/ECFV (clinically assessed) 0.2 + 1.2 11.6 ± 8.2 10 ± 9 16.8 ± 15b 0.001*
Gender, M/F 115/79 10/7 47/36 58/36 0.702
Age, years 61 ± 15 60 ± 16 60 ± 16 62 ± 15 0.788
Diabetes, % 45 % 47 % 3 % 54 %c 0.035*
Smoking, % 11 % 0 % 6 % 17 %c 0.02*
Edema, % 28 % 0 % 9 % 47 %b,c <0.001*
Obesity, % 26 % 47 % 30 % 19 %b,c 0.001*
Pre-HD-SBP, mmHg 131 ± 25 128 ± 26 129 ± 26 137 ± 25 0.088
Pre-HD-DBP, mmHg 71 ± 16 70 ± 15 72 ± 18 72 ± 16 0.843
Pre-HD-PP, mmHg 60 ± 22 59 ± 29 b 57 ± 19 65 ± 19b 0.025*
Pre-HD-MAP, mmHg 91 ± 17 89 ± 14 91 ± 19 94 ± 17 0.418
HTN, % 45 % 41 % 36 % 54 %c 0.015*
Antihypertensive 48 % 24 % 45 % 54 % 0.057
Intradialytic hypotension 17 % 35 % 20 % 11 %b 0.007*
Paradoxical hypertension 31 % 35 % 29 % 32 % 0.840
Plasma sodium, mmol/L 136 ± 3 136 ± 2.6 137 ± 3 135.5 ± 3c 0.002*
Serum potassium, mEq/L 4.7 ± 0.6 4.8 ± 0.6 4.6 ± 0.6 4.8 ± 0.7 0.163
Albumin, g/L 36 ± 3.5 36 ± 4 37 ± 3. 36 ± 3.5 0.184
  1. VS volume status, VS/ECFV volume status/extracellular fluid volume, pre-HD-SBP pre-hemodialysis systolic blood pressure, pre-HD-DBP pre-hemodialysis diastolic blood pressure, pre-HD-PP pre-hemodialysis pulse pressure, pre-HD-MAP pre-hemodialysis mean arterial pressure, HTN hypertension
  2. *P < 0.05
  3. aSignificant difference between hypovolemic and normovolemic
  4. bSignificant difference between hypovolemic and hypervolemic
  5. cSignificant difference between normovolemic and hypervolemic