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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression examining the association between renin angiotensin system antagonists and other variables with AKIN2/AKIN3 compared with noAKI/AKIN1

From: Acute kidney injury: an acceptable risk of treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockade in primary care?

Variable Category/term Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
Model 1    
ACE/ARB No 1 <0.001
  Yes 1.73 (1.41, 2.11)  
Model 2    
ACE/ARB No 1 <0.001
  Yes 1.62 (1.31, 1.99)  
Age (*) Linear term 0.44 (0.30, 0.67) <0.001
  Quadratic term 1.09 (1.06, 1.13)  
Sex Female 1 0.21
  Male 1.15 (0.92, 1.43)  
Model 3    
ACE/ARB No 1 0.85
  Yes 1.02 (0.81, 1.29)  
Age (*) Linear term 0.43 (0.27, 0.68) <0.001
  Quadratic term 1.08 (1.04, 1.12)  
Sex Female 1 0.34
  Male 1.12 (0.89, 1.40)  
Hypertension   1.87 (1.27, 2.74) 0.001
Diabetes   1.69 (1.33, 2.15) <0.001
IHD   0.96 (0.73, 1.25) 0.75
Heart Failure   2.09 (1.44, 3.05) <0.001
Systolic BP < 100   4.37 (3.18, 5.99) <0.001
CKD stage 1 1 <0.001
  2 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)  
  3 1.78 (1.29, 2.45)  
  4 2.39 (1.47, 3.91)  
Diuretic   1.66 (1.34, 2.06) <0.001
Model 4    
ACE/ARB No 1 0.17
  Yes 0.83 (0.63, 1.09)  
Age (*) Linear term 0.47 (0.24, 0.93) <0.001
  Quadratic term 1.07 (1.02, 1.12)  
Sex Female 1 0.79
  Male 1.06 (0.81, 1.40)  
Hypertension   2.17 (1.29, 3.65) 0.003
Diabetes   1.32 (0.99, 1.74) 0.06
IHD   1.07 (0.78, 1.46) 0.69
Heart Failure   1.66 (1.07, 2.56) 0.02
Systolic BP < 100   4.34 (2.96, 6.36) <0.001
CKD stage 1 1 0.47
  2 1.16 (0.85, 1.56)  
  3 1.31 (0.89, 1.92)  
  4 1.38 (0.76, 2.45)  
Diuretic   1.56 (1.20, 2.02) 0.001
Proteinuria None 1 <0.001
  Moderate 1.62 (1.21, 2.17)  
  Severe 3.43 (2.22, 5.29)  
  1. AKI (acute kidney injury), AKIN1 (acute kidney injury network stage 1), AKIN2 (acute kidney injury network stage 2), AKIN3 (acute kidney injury network stage 3), sCKD (chronic kidney disease), ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker), IHD (ischaemic heart disease), BP (blood pressure).
  2. (*) Odds ratios given for a 10-unit increase in the explanatory variable.