Skip to main content

Table 2 Multilevel logistic regression examining the association between renin angiotensin system antagonists and other variables with acute kidney injury

From: Acute kidney injury: an acceptable risk of treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockade in primary care?

Variable Category/term Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
Model 1    
ACE/ARB No 1 <0.001
  Yes 1.93 (1.81, 2.06)  
Model 2    
ACE/ARB No 1 <0.001
  Yes 1.69 (1.58, 1.81)  
Age (*) Linear term 0.41 (0.35, 0.48) <0.001
  Quadratic term 1.12 (1.10, 1.13)  
Sex Female 1 <0.001
  Male 1.70 (1.58, 1.83)  
Model 3    
ACE/ARB No 1 <0.001
  Yes 1.17 (1.09, 1.25)  
Age (*) Linear term 0.48 (0.42, 0.56) <0.001
  Quadratic term 1.08 (1.07, 1.09)  
Sex Female 1 <0.001
  Male 1.61 (1.450, 1.72)  
Hypertension   1.30 (1.17, 1.44) <0.001
Diabetes   1.47 (1.37, 1.58) <0.001
IHD   1.24 (1.16, 1.35) 0.001
Heart Failure   2.29 (2.04, 2.56) <0.001
Systolic BP < 100   2.32 (2.09, 2.58) <0.001
CKD stage 1 1 <0.001
  2 1.90 (1.76, 2.04)  
  3 3.79 (3.46, 4.14)  
  4 6.79 (5.93, 7.77)  
Diuretic   1.42 (1.34, 1.51) <0.001
Model 4    
ACE/ARB No 1 0.01
  Yes 1.11 (1.02, 1.20)  
Age (*) Linear term 0.69 (0.55, 0.87) <0.001
  Quadratic term 1.05 (1.03, 1.06)  
Sex Female 1 <0.001
  Male 1.51 (1.40, 1.64)  
Hypertension   1.36 (1.18, 1.56) <0.001
Diabetes   1.13 (1.04, 1.23) 0.004
IHD   1.28 (1.17, 1.40) <0.001
Heart Failure   2.10 (1.85, 2.38) <0.001
Systolic BP < 100   2.28 (2.01, 2.59) <0.001
CKD stage 1 1 <0.001
  2 1.82 (1.67, 1.99)  
  3 3.40 (3.06, 3.77)  
  4 5.12 (4.38, 5.99)  
Diuretic   1.45 (1.35, 1.56) <0.001
Proteinuria None 1 <0.001
  Moderate 1.83 (1.69, 1.99)  
  Severe 3.27 (2.87, 3.72)  
  1. (*) Odds ratios given for a 10-unit increase in the explanatory variable. Odds ratios describe the effect of all variables upon the outcome. For variables measured on a categorical scale, the odds ratios represent the odds of AKI in each category relative to a baseline category. For the continuous variables, the odds ratios represent the change in the odds of AKI for one-unit increase in that variable. A series of four models were examined, each considering the effects of RAS antagonists with different combinations of adjustments for other variables. Model 1 was unadjusted, model 2 was adjusted age and gender, model 3 for all variables apart from proteinuria and model 4 for all variables. CKD (chronic kidney disease), ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker), IHD (ischaemic heart disease), BP (blood pressure).