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Table 1 Population and baseline characteristics

From: Acute kidney injury: an acceptable risk of treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockade in primary care?

  Analysed patients No baseline GFR within the preceding year
Variable Total population No AKI in follow-up AKI in follow-up  
Population   
Population in the analysis (%) 63,722 (100) 58,904 (92.44) 4,818 (7.56) 49,695
Average age (years) 62.67 61.79 73.42 48.93
Males (%) 28,583 (44.86) 26,097 (44.30) 2,486 (51.60) 21,118 (42.50)
Females (%) 35,139 (55.14) 32,807 (55.70) 2,332 (48.40) 28,577 (57.50)
GFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (%) 50,283 (78.91) 48,135 (81.72) 2,148 (44.58) 47,175 (94.93)
CKD Stage 3a (%) 9,702 (15.23) 8,402 (14.26) 1,300 (26.98) 2,060 (4.15)
CKD Stage 3b (%) 3,019 (4.74) 2,038 (3.46) 981 (20.36) 399 (0.80)
CKD Stage 4 (%) 718 (1.13) 329 (0.56) 389 (8.07) 61 (0.13)
CKD Total (%) 13,439 (21.09) 10,769 (18.28) 2,670 (55.42) 2520 (5.07)
Hypertension (%) 38,912 (61.07) 34,962 (59.35) 3,950 (81.98) 10,454 (21.03)
Diabetes (%) 10,135 (15.91) 8,815 (14.97) 1,320 (27.40) 904 (1.81)
Ischaemic Heart Disease (%) 8,033 (12.61) 6,767 (11.49) 1,266 (26.28) 1163 (2.34)
Heart Failure (%) 916 (1.48) 628 (1.07) 288 (5.98) 63 (0.13)
Had an indication for an ACEi/ARB (%) 26,078 (40.92) 23,156 (39.31) 2,922 (60.65) 6,268 (12.61)
Were on an ACEi/ARB (%) 18,698 (71.70) 16,455 (71.06) 2,243 (76.76) 3,035 (6.12)
Had no indication for an ACEi/ARB (%) 37,644 (59.08) 35,748 (60.69) 1,896 (39.35) 43,427 (87.39)
Were on an ACEi/ARB (%) 5,236 (13.91) 4,751 (13.29) 485 (25.58) 1,095 (2.20)
On a Thiazide Diuretic (%) 12,628 (19.82) 11,384 (19.33) 1,244 (25.82) 2,796 (5.63)
On another Diuretic (%) 1,724 (2.71) 1,305 (2.22) 419 (8.70) 256 (0.52)
On a Calcium Channel Blocker (%) 17,744 (27.85) 15,785 (26.80) 1,959 (40.66) 2,488 (5.01)
On a Beta Blocker (%) 3,794 (5.95) 3,323 (5.64) 471 (9.78) 862 (1.73)
On an Alpha Blocker (%) 1,004 (1.58) 849 (1.44) 155 (3.22) 58 (0.12)
On a Centrally Acting Agent (%) 83 (0.13) 65 (0.11) 18 (0.37) 14 (0.03)
Proteinuria (at study start):     
None recorded (%) 35,752 (56.11) 33,504 (56.88) 2,248 (46.66) 35,014 (70.46)
Normal to Mildly Elevated (%) 22,552 (35.39) 20,945 (35.56) 1,607 (33.35) 13,342 (26.85)
Moderately Elevated (%) 4,473 (7.02) 3,732 (6.34) 741 (15.38) 1,065 (2.14)
Severely Elevated (%) 945 (1.48) 723 (1.23) 222 (4.61) 274 (0.55)
  1. GFR (glomerular filtration rate), AKI (acute kidney injury), CKD (chronic kidney disease), ACEi (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker).