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Table 5 Associations between chronic kidney disease and potential risk factors, León, Nicaragua

From: A population-based study of prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in León, Nicaragua

  <60 eGFR § N (%) ≥60 eGFR N (%) Unadjusted POR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted POR (95% CI)* p-value
Sex       
  Female 77 (37) 1247 (60) referent -- referent  
  Male 131 (63) 820 (40) 2.59 (1.93, 3.47) <.0001 3.47 (2.50, 4.80) <.0001
Age (categorical)       
  18-29 9 (4) 539 (26) Referent   referent  
  30-39 28 (13) 700 (34) 2.39 (1.12, 5.11) 0.0242 2.10 (0.98, 4.51) 0.0567
  40-49 40 (19) 409 (20) 5.85 (2.81, 12.20) <.0001 5.10 (2.43, 10.72) <.0001
  50-59 68 (33) 271 (13) 15.02 (7.38, 30.55) <.0001 11.96 (5.79, 24.71) <.0001
  60-70 63 (30) 148 (7) 25.48 (12.38, 52.42) <.0001 23.3 (11.12, 48.83) <.0001
Geographic Zone       
  Urban 97 (47) 1348 (65) referent   referent  
  Rural 111 (53) 719 (35) 2.15 (1.61, 2.86) <.0001 2.10 (1.53, 2.89) <.0001
Neighborhood       
  Mantica 39 (19) 575 (28) referent    
  Perla 80 (38) 812 (39) 1.45 (0.98, 2.16) 0.0656 1.67 (1.09, 2.56) 0.0194
  Sutiava 89 (43) 679 (33) 1.93 (1.31, 2.86) 0.001 1.95 (1.27, 2.97) 0.0021
Self-reported diabetes      
  No 183 (88) 1989 (96) referent   referent  
  Yes 25 (12) 78 (4) 3.48 (2.17, 5.60) <.0001 1.37 (0.81, 2.34) 0.2425
Self-reported high blood pressure     
  No 145 (70) 1826 (88) referent   referent  
  Yes 63 (30) 241 (12) 3.29 (2.38, 4.56) <.0001 2.07 (1.43, 3.02) 0.0001
  Education       
  University and Professional 15 (7) 403 (20) referent   referent  
  Secondary 25 (12) 648 (31) 1.04 (0.54, 1.99) 0.9141 1.13 (0.57, 2.24) 0.7364
  Primary 113 (55) 830 (40) 3.66 (2.11, 6.35) <.0001 2.44 (1.35, 4.41) 0.003
  No schooling 54 (26) 184 (9) 7.88 (4.34, 14.34) <.0001 4.24 (2.21, 8.14) <.0001
Number of years worked in agriculture     
  None 57 (27) 1212 (59) referent   referent  
  >0-4 20 (10) 277 (13) 1.54 (0.91, 2.6) 0.1101 1.39 (0.80, 2.43) 0.24
  5-9 18 (9) 169 (8) 2.26 (1.30, 3.94) 0.0038 1.70 (0.94, 3.06) 0.0773
  10-14 28 (13) 151 (7) 3.94 (2.43, 6.39) <.0001 2.55 (1.50, 4.32) 0.0005
  15+ 85 (41) 258 (12) 7.01 (4.88, 10.06) <.0001 2.91 (1.94, 4.38) <.0001
Number of times drank unregulated alcohol (lija)    
  None 185 (89) 1979 (96) referent   referent  
  ≥1 per week 23 (11) 88 (4) 2.80 (1.73, 4.53) <.0001 1.95 (1.13, 3.38) 0.0164
Number of cigarettes smoked     
  None 175 (84) 1800 (87) referent   referent  
  ≥1 per day 33 (16) 267 (13) 1.27 (0.86, 1.88) 0.2317 0.86 (0.56, 1.35) 0.5199
Daily water consumption   
  0-4 34 (16) 617 (30) referent   referent  
  5-8 59 (29) 690 (33) 1.55 (1.00, 2.40) 0.0482 0.98 (0.61, 1.56) 0.9201
  9-12 58 (28) 407 (20) 2.59 (1.66, 4.02) <.0001 1.62 (1.00, 2.63) 0.0488
  13-52 56 (27) 352 (17) 2.89 (1.85, 4.51) <.0001 1.80 (1.08, 2.98) 0.0231
  1. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
  2. *Logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age (indicator-coded categorical variable), self-reported high blood pressure diagnosis, and self-reported diabetes diagnosis.
  3. §Calculated using the MDRD method [11] eGFR variable truncated at 150.
  4. Quartiles of ranked average number of glasses of water per day.