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Table 3 Stratum-specific prevalence of chronic kidney disease, León, Nicaragua by demographic characteristics and potential risk factors

From: A population-based study of prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in León, Nicaragua

  N (%) Percent missing Stratum-specific prevalence (95% CI) * p-value §
0 < =GFR < 60 60 < =GFR < 90 GFR= > 90
N = 208 N = 493 N = 1574
GFR data
N = 218
Mean eGFR ± SD 2493 8.7 39 ± 15 78 ± 8 121 ± 20  
Demographic Characteristics      
Sex       
  Female 1434 (58) 7.7 5.8 (4.6, 7.1) 19.9 (17.8, 22.1) 74.2 (71.9, 76.6) <.0001
 Male 1054 (42) 9.8 13.8 (11.6, 16) 24.1 (21.4, 26.8) 62.1 (59.1, 65.2)  
Age (continuous)
  2493(100) 1.6 51.4 ± 11.8 45.3 ± 11.7 36.2 ± 11.4  
Age (categorical)
 18-29 595 (24) 7.9 1.6 (0.6, 2.7) 9.1 (6.7, 11.5) 89.2 (86.6, 91.8)  
 30-39 781 (32) 6.8 3.8 (2.4, 5.2) 14.6 (12, 17.1) 81.6 (78.8, 84.4) <.0001
 40-49 489 (20) 8.2 8.9 (6.3, 11.5) 34.1 (29.7, 38.5) 57.0 (52.4, 61.6)  
 50-59 361 (15) 6.1 20.1 (15.8, 24.3) 35.1 (30, 40.2) 44.8 (39.5, 50.1)  
 60-70 227 (9) 7.0 29.9 (23.7, 36) 30.8 (24.6, 37) 39.3 (32.7, 45.9)  
Geographic Zone       
 Urban 1585 (64) 8.8 6.7 (5.4, 8.0) 20.8 (18.7, 22.9) 72.5 (70.2, 74.8)  
 Rural 903 (36) 8.1 13.4 (11.1, 15.7) 23.1 (20.3, 26) 63.5 (60.2, 66.8) <.0001
Neighborhood
 Mantica 668 (27) 8.1 6.4 (4.4, 8.3) 20.2 (17, 23.4) 73.5 (70.0, 76.9)  
 Perla 975 (40) 8.5 9.0 (7.1, 10.8) 26.2 (23.3, 29.1) 64.8 (61.7, 67.9) 0.0039
 Sutiava 809 (33) 5.1 11.6 (9.3, 13.9) 17.6 (14.9, 20.3) 70.8 (67.6, 74.0)  
Education       
 No schooling 251 (10) 5.2 22.7 (17.4, 28) 21.8 (16.6, 27.1) 55.5 (49.1, 61.8)  
 Primary 1020 (42) 7.5 12.0 (9.9, 14.1) 25.0 (22.3, 27.8) 63.0 (59.9, 66.1)  
 Secondary 728 (30) 7.6 3.7 (2.3, 5.1) 18.3 (15.4, 21.2) 78.0 (74.9, 81.1) <.0001
 University/Professional 451 (18) 7.3 3.6 (1.8, 5.4) 19.4 (15.6, 23.2) 77.0 (73.0, 81.1)  
Poverty Index**     
 Not Poor 1207(55) 7.5 7.5 (6.0, 9.0) 24 (21.6, 26.4) 68.5 (65.8, 71.1) 0.3308
 Poor 935(42) 7.7 7.9 (6.2, 9.6) 18.7 (16.2, 21.2) 73.5 (70.6, 76.3)  
 Extremely poor 63(3) 14.3 9.3 (2.1, 16.4) 27.8 (16.7, 38.8) 63.0 (51.0, 74.9)  
Water Source††      
 Indoor Plumbing 1894 (86) 5.4 5.6 (4.6, 6.5) 17 (15.4, 18.5) 57.2 (55.2, 59.3)  
 Community Source 198 (9) 0.5 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 1.8 (1.2, 2.3) 5.5 (4.6, 6.5)  
 Own well 414 (19) 1.5 2.9 (2.2, 3.7) 4.0 (3.2, 4.8) 10.1 (8.9, 11.4)  
 Other 82 (4) 0.3 0.5 (0.2, 0.7) 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 2.3 (1.7, 2.9)  
Potential Risk Factors       
Number of times drank unregulated alcohol (lija)     
 None 2332 (95) 7.2 8.5 (7.4, 9.7) 21.8 (20, 23.5) 69.7 (67.7, 71.6) 0.0004
 ≥1 per week 121 (5) 8.3 20.7 (13.2, 28.3) 19.8 (12.4, 27.2) 59.5 (50.3, 68.6)  
Number of cigarettes smoked      
 None 2131 (87) 7.3 8.9 (7.6, 10.1) 21 (19.2, 22.8) 70.2 (68.2, 72.2) 0.0166
 ≥1 per day 322 (13) 6.8 11.0 (7.5, 14.5) 26.3 (21.3, 31.3) 62.7 (57.2, 68.1)  
Self-reported diabetes     
 No 2342 (95) 7.3 8.4 (7.3, 9.6) 21 (19.3, 22.7) 70.6 (68.7, 72.5) <.0001
 Yes 111 (5) 7.2 24.3 (16, 32.6) 35.9 (26.7, 45.2) 39.8 (30.4, 49.3)  
Self-reported high blood pressure      
 No 2127 (87) 7.3 7.4 (6.2, 8.5) 20.6 (18.8, 22.4) 72.0 (70.1, 74.0) <.0001
 Yes 326 (13) 6.7 20.7 (16.2, 25.3) 28.6 (23.5, 33.7) 50.7 (45, 56.3)  
Number of years worked in agriculture     
never 1365 (56) 7.0 4.5 (3.4, 5.6) 18.4 (16.2, 20.5) 77.1 (74.8, 79.5) <.0001
 >0 to 4 325 (13) 8.6 6.7 (3.9, 9.6) 24.6 (19.7, 29.5) 68.7 (63.4, 74.0)  
 5-9 201 (8) 7.0 9.6 (5.4, 13.9) 27.8 (21.4, 34.2) 62.6 (55.6, 69.5)  
 10-14 187 (8) 4.3 15.6 (10.3, 21) 22.9 (16.7, 29.1) 61.5 (54.3, 68.6)  
 ≥15 375 (15) 8.5 24.8 (20.2, 29.4) 27.4 (22.7, 32.1) 47.8 (42.5, 53.1)  
Daily water consumption‡‡    
 0-4 699 (29) 6.9 5.2 (3.5, 6.9) 17.8 (14.9, 20.8) 77 (73.7, 80.2) <.0001
 5-8 808 (33) 7.3 7.9 (5.9, 9.8) 20.8 (17.9, 23.7) 71.3 (68.1, 74.5)  
 9-12 505 (21) 7.9 12.5 (9.5, 15.5) 23.2 (19.4, 27.1) 64.3 (59.9, 68.7)  
 13-52 439 (18) 7.1 13.7 (10.4, 17.1) 27.7 (23.4, 32.0) 58.6 (53.8, 63.4)  
  1. *Prevalence was calculated as the number of participants in each eGFR by covariate strata, divided by the total number of participants in the relevant covariate strata. For example, the prevalence of females with eGFR < 60 was calculated as the number of females with eGFR < 60 divided by the total number of females in the study (i.e. 77/1324 = 5.8%).
  2. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
  3. Calculated using the MDRD method [11] eGFR variable truncated at 150.
  4. §p-value for chi-square test of homogeneity.
  5. **Household-level relative poverty indicator calculated using data from health surveillance system that takes into consideration education level, occupation of each household member, water source, material predominantly used in home construction, and toilet facilities (see Additional file 1: Figure S1).
  6. ††Percentages do not add up to 100 because categories are not mutually exclusive.
  7. ‡‡Quartiles of ranked average number of glasses of water per day.