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Table 1 Comparison of León health and demographic surveillance system and participant data

From: A population-based study of prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in León, Nicaragua

Indicator León health and demographic surveillance system* Participants  
  N % N § % p-value
Total 32,591   2493   
Geographic zone      
  Urban 23,392 71.8 1585 63.7 <.0001
  Rural 9,199 28.2 903 36.3  
Neighborhood      
  Perla 13,650 41.9 975 39.8 0.0401
  Mantica 9,240 28.4 668 27.2 0.2399
  Sutiava 9,701 29.8 809 33.0 0.0008
Education      
  No schooling 3,649 11.2 251 10.2 0.127
  Primary 11,811 36.2 1020 41.6 <.0001
  Secondary 12,035 36.9 728 29.7 <.0001
  University/Professional 4,933 15.1 451 18.4 <.0001
Poverty index**      
  Not poor 21,387 65.6 1207 54.7 <.0001
  Poor 10,263 31.5 935 42.4 <.0001
  Extremely poor 941 2.9 63 2.9 0.9347
Age      
  18-29 13,594 41.7 595 24.3 <.0001
  30-39 7,154 22.0 781 31.8 <.0001
  40-49 5,727 17.6 489 19.9 0.0031
  50-59 3,736 11.5 361 14.7 <.0001
  60-70 2,380 7.3 227 9.3 0.0004
Sex      
  Male 15,214 46.7 1054 42.4 <.0001
  Female 17,377 53.3 1434 57.6  
  1. *Surveillance system data among residents aged 18–70.
  2. §Numbers within each variable do not sum to the total because of missing values and percentages were calculated based on available data for each variable. Percent missing GFR data for each variable is presented in Table 3.
  3. Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square test for homogeneity of proportions.
  4. **Missing poverty data for participants from rural Sutiava (N = 247).