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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Benefits and harms of citrate locking solutions for hemodialysis catheters: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Source Country (#Centres) Study duration N Methods Participants Intervention Control Outcomes Funding Source
[22] Slovenia (1) Not specifically stated. 30 Method of randomization unclear. ESRD patients with subclavian or jugular single lumen catheters inserted as temporary blood accesses for HD expected to be used for at least 7 days. 3 ml of 4% trisodium citrate A mixture of 1 ml (5000 U/ml) of unfractionated heparin and 2 ml of saline. Catheter removal. Not specified.
[23] Belgium (1) April 2000 - October 2000 19 Method of randomization unclear. Chronic hemodialysis patients with a single lumen central venous catheter as permanent vascular dialysis access. 5% trisodium citrate 5000 U/ml heparin solution Local/in-situ thrombolysis (bolus events for inadequate blood flow). Not specified.
[24] Canada (1) December 2004 - June 2005 61 Randomization based on patient surnames. All patients receiving chronic HD three times a week, 4 h/session, at the in-center Hemodialysis Unit with cuffed catheters as primary vascular access were eligible for the trial. Prefilled 5 ml syringe containing 4% citrate (MEDXL, Montreal, Quebec, Canada). 1 ml of 10,000 U/ml heparin diluted to 5000 U/ml with normal saline Patient survival, bacteremia rates, catheter removal, and local/in-situ thrombolysis. Not specified.
[25] United Kingdom (4) 6 mo. period 232 Open-label. Randomization was achieved through single-random number allocation. ESRD patients with IJ CVCs (Bio-Flex TC), on HD > 90 days. 46.7% trisodium citrate. 5% heparin Patient survival, bacteremia rates, catheter-related hospitalization rates, catheter replacement/exchange rates, use of urokinase. Not specified.
[26] Netherlands (10) April 2001 - September 2002 291 Randomization by computer-generated random number list. Patients >18 years, not admitted to the intensive care ward, with chronic or acute renal failure that required hemodialysis through a CVC. Only patients with a newly inserted, well-positioned CVC expected to be in use for 1 wk. 30% trisodium citrate Unfractionated sodium heparin 5000 U/ml Patient survival, bacteremia rates, catheter-related infection hospitalization rates, catheter removal rates, and catheter treatment with urokinase. Not specified.
  1. Abbreviations: CVC – central venous catheter; HD – hemodialysis; IJ – internal jugular.