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Table 4 Comparison of key elements of KPD national programmes worldwide

From: Foundations and principles of the Canadian living donor paired exchange program

Country Canada UK Australia US Netherlands
Name of programme Living Donor Paired Exchange Paired Living Kidney Donation Paired Kidney Exchange Programme Kidney Paired Donation Living Donor Exchange Programme
Organization responsible Canadian Blood Services NHS Blood and Transplant Organ and Tissue Authority National program overseen by Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) plus multiple independent registries Dutch Transplant Foundation
Year national program established 2009 [7] 2007 [8] 2010 [9] 2010 [10, 11] 2004 [12]
Type of registry National National National National registry and smaller independent registries exist National
Types of exchanges considered Multi way and domino* Multi way and domino Multi way and domino Multi way and domino Multi way and domino
Bridge Donors No No No Yes No
Desensitization programme in combination with KPD No No Yes [13] Yes [14] No
  1. *(Multi way exchanges can be 2 way, 3 way or more type of exchanges between pairs; domino exchanges are triggered by a non-directed altruistic donor which then sets of a series of transplants. When the last donor donates to the patient at the top of the deceased donor pool it is a closed domino; when the last donor does not donate but instead waits to set off another series of domino transplants this is called open domino exchange, and such donors are called bridge donors).