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Table 2 Cross-sectional correlations among measures of vitamin K status, demographic and biochemical variables

From: Assessment of potential biomarkers of subclinical vitamin K deficiency in patients with end-stage kidney disease

Variables Phylloquinone %ucOC PIVKA-II
  r p r p r p
Demographic variables       
 Age, years 0.108 0.49 0.063 0.69 0.37 0.015
 Dialysis vintage, months -0.25 0.11 0.06 0.72 -0.04 0.82
  Mean ± SD p Mean ± SD p Mean ± SD p
 Sex       
  Male 1.27 ± 1.23 0.91 25.4 ± 16.6 0.87 3.93 ± 2.47 0.98
  Female 1.21 ± 1.08 22.9 ± 13.4 4.09 ± 2.66
 Etiology of ESKD       
  Diabetes mellitus 1.13 ± 0.99 0.98 23.9 ± 16.8 0.93 4.11 ± 1.98 0.22
  Renovascular disease 1.33 ± 1.34 25.5 ± 15.0 4.48 ± 3.10
  Other 1.25 ± 1.19 24.3 ± 15.7 3.55 ± 2.35
 Cardiovascular disease Yes 1.15 + 1.01 0.72 19.8 ± 13.7 0.12 5.16 ± 3.26 0.009
  No 1.29 ± 1.25 26.9 ± 15.9 3.44 ± 1.90
 Peripheral vascular disease Yes 1.25 ± 1.36 0.52 23.2 ± 15.0 0.53 4.61 ± 2.73 0.08
  No 1.24 ± 1.06 25.4 ± 15.9 3.59 ± 2.33
 Cerebrovascular disease Yes 1.15 ± 1.15 0.84 16.0 ± 14.2 0.048 5.20 ± 3.93 0.58
  No 1.26 ± 1.19 26.0 ± 15.3 3.79 ± 2.22
 History of fracture Yes 0.94 ± 0.85 0.20 19.6 ± 14.8 0.035 4.08 ± 2.87 0.55
  No 1.44 ± 1.31 27.9 ± 15.1 3.93 ± 2.31
 Smoking status Current 0.55 ± 0.45 0.043 29.6 ± 20.0 0.55 3.74 ± 1.08 0.09
  Former 1.65 ± 1.47 24.2 ± 13.4 4.44 ± 2.51
  Never 1.12 ± 0.84 22.4 ± 15.4 3.59 ± 2.98
  r p r p r p
Laboratory variables       
 Phosphate, mmol/L -0.05 0.77 0.30 0.06 0.15 0.35
 Calcium, ionized, mmol/L 0.15 0.33 0.22 0.18 0.08 0.63
 Calcium-phosphate product, mmol2/L2 0.06 0.69 0.40 0.009 0.20 0.19
 PTH, pmol/L 0.05 0.76 -0.26 0.10 -0.05 0.74
 Albumin, g/L -0.003 0.99 -0.07 0.66 -0.07 0.65
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 0.43 0.004 0.14 0.39 0.14 0.37
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 0.17 0.30 0.22 0.18 0.21 0.19
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L -0.04 0.82 0.26 0.10 -0.31 0.046
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 0.45 0.002 -0.13 0.42 0.19 0.22
 Kt/V 0.11 0.48 0.15 0.35 -0.33 0.027
 URR 0.04 0.80 0.05 0.73 -0.06 0.68
  1. ESKD, End-stage kidney disease; PTH, Parathyroid hormone; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; HDL, High-density lipoprotein; Kt/V, measure of dialysis adequacy; URR, urea reduction ratio.