Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical features of study population

From: Assessment of potential biomarkers of subclinical vitamin K deficiency in patients with end-stage kidney disease

Variables N (%) Mean ± SD Range
Clinical characteristics (n = 44)    
 Age, years   64.2 ± 14.5 22 to 92
 Sex (male) 29 (65.9)   
 Dialysis vintage, months   43.8 ± 38.3 3 to 183
 Etiology of ESKD    
  Diabetes mellitus 11 (25.0)   
  Renovascular disease 14 (31.8)   
  Other 19 (43.2)   
 Cardiovascular disease 14 (31.8)   
 Peripheral vascular disease 17 (38.6)   
 Cerebrovascular disease 6 (13.6)   
 History of fracture 17 (38.6)   
 Non-smoker 17 (38.6)   
Vitamin K status    
 Phylloquinone concentration, nmol/L (n = 44)   1.25 ± 1.17 0 to 5.3
 %ucOC (n = 42)   24.5 ± 15.4 5.2 to 63.1
 PIVKA-II, nmol/L (n = 44)   3.98 ± 2.51 1.5 to 14.5
Laboratory measures    
 Phosphate, mmol/L (n = 43)   1.49 ± 0.38 0.61 to 2.96
 Calcium, ionized, mmol/L (n = 43)   1.17 ± 0.08 0.97 to 1.36
 Parathyroid hormone, pmol/L (n = 43)   38.7 ± 39.4 0.9 to 220.1
 Albumin, g/L (n = 43)   40.4 ± 3.2 32 to 48
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L (n = 43)   3.74 ± 0.86 2.1 to 6.3
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L (n = 41)   1.62 ± 0.63 0.4 to 3.1
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L (n = 43)   1.30 ± 0.35 0.7 to 2.3
 Triglycerides, mmol/L (n = 43)   1.75 ± 1.23 0.8 to 5.6
 Kt/V (n = 44)   1.52 ± 0.35 0.71 to 2.23
 URR (n = 44)   0.73 ± 0.07 0.50 to 0.88
  1. ESKD, End-stage kidney disease; %ucOC, percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin; PIVKA-II, Proteins induced by vitamin K absence or antagonism II; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; Kt/V, measure of dialysis adequacy, where K is dialyzer clearance of urea, t is dialysis time, and V is volume of distribution of urea; URR, urea reduction ratio.